Uburundi

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Republika y'u Burundi
République du Burundi
Irepuburika y’Uburundi
Flag of Burundi.svg Blason du Burundi.svg
LocationBurundi.svg

Irepuburika y’Uburundi ni igihugu kiri mu Bufirika bw’ubuseruko. Bukikujwe n'Urwanda mu buraruko; Tanzania mu buseruko hamwe n'Irepuburika iharanira idemokarasi ya Kongo RDC mu burengero. Ikiyaga Tanganyika kiri mu burengero bw’Uburundi kiri hafi y’umurwa mukuru Bujumbura kikaba ari ica kabiri kw’isi gifise munsi kure cane.

  • Izina ry’Igihugu: Irepuburika y’Uburundi
  • Umugwa mukuru: Bujumbura
  • Uburinganire: Ibirometero kwadarato 27.830 (incuro indwi izinga rya Mayoroka)
  • Abanyagihugu: 8.855.000 (Icegeranyo c’igwiririrana ry’abantu mu Burundi mu bushikiranganji bw'Uburimyi n'Ubworozi muri 2012) mur’iyi myaka mirongo itatu iheze igitigiri c’abantu caraduze incuro kabiri
  • Ukurundana: Abantu 318,18 ku kirometero kwadarato: Uburundi buri mu bihugu bifise abantu benshi mu Bufirika
  • Ukwikukira: Ku wa mbere Mukakaro 1962
  • Icitiro: Umurundi, Umurundikazi

Akahise[edit | edit source]

Abashakashatsi bavuga yuko Uburundi bwamyeho ka gihugu cikwiye kuva mu kinjana ca 16. Mu mwaka w'1903 ni ho catakaza intahe y’ukwikukira igihe hashikiye abadagi; umwami w’ico gihe Mwezi Gisabo akaba yasinyanye na bo Umwumvikano w’i Kiganda. Haheze indwano y’isi yose ya mbere caciye gicurwa bufuni na buhoro n'igihugu c’Ububirigi. Uburundi bwarafatanijwe n’igihugu c'Urwanda: Rwanda-urundi. Ku wa 1 Mukakaro 1962 niho casubira kuronka intahe yaco y´ukwikukira irondewe n´umuganwa Rwagasore Rudoviko umuhungu w'umwami Mwambutsa Bangiricenge akaba n'umukuru w’umugambwe w'abadasigana UPRONA. Uburundi cari igihugu cifashe kandi cagutse. Mu nyuma ku ntwaro y'Ababirigi gitakaza Ubugufi, imwe mu ntara yari nini, ica yegukira Tanzaniya.

Akahise k’Uburundi karanzwe n’igihe c’ubwami bwa kera bwabayeho imbere y’ubukoroni, n’imbibe zitahindutse. Uburundi bwashinze imizi kuva mu kinjana ca 16 canke ca 17 mu karere karimwo abantu kuva mu kimpumbi ca mbere imbere y’umuzo wa Yezu Kirisu. Bwari Ubwami bushingiye ku migenzo n’amategeko kama y’Imana, umwe wese akamenya ico ajejwe ariko kandi ata migenderanire ishemeye n’amakungu iriho. Ico gihugu rero kitagira imihora co muri Afirika y’Ubuseruko, gitumbereye mu karere k’ibiyaga binini kikaba kigizwe n’abahutu (bangana n’ibice 85%), abatutsi (bangana n’ibice 14%) n’abatwa (bangana n’igice 1%) kikaba kirangwa n’imico imwe n’ururimi rumwe . Indimi zizwi kandi zikoreshwa mu kazi ni Ikirundi, igifaransa; igiswahili gikoreshwa canecane mu buzima b'urudandazwa.

Kuva Uburundi buronse ukwikukira, bwagize ingorane nyinshi zijanye n’ivyimibano n'iporitike zagumye zigaruka ari zo zatumye haba indwano, haba abahungiye mu mahanga abandi bakegeranirizwa hagati mu gihugu, harasamburwa inyubakwa z’iterambere n’ubutunzi. Indwano yabaye mu Burundi mu 1993, ni yo yabaye ndende cane kandi ni na yo yagize inkurikizi mbi cane ku vyerekeye iporitike. Kukaba nkako, uretse ihagarikwa ry’umuzo w'idemokarasi, n’itituka ry’ivyerekana iterambere mu vyerekeye ubutunzi ico kiza nyene c’intambara cateye, caranatumye haba itituka ry’ubutegetsi n’akaranga mu bice vyinshi vy’igihugu.

Kimwe mu bituma indyane zidahera, ni igwirirana ry’abantu mu matongo yaze n’inkurikizi zaryo ku butunzi busanzwe bushimikiye canecane ku burimyi. Abenegihugu bangana n'imiriyoni umunani ugereranije bagwirirana ku rugero rugwijije na kabiri uko imyaka mirongo itatu iheze, bakagwira kurugero rungana n’ibice 3% ku mwaka. Tugereranije, dusanga hafi ica kabiri c’abarundi bafise munsi y’imyaka 15, ibice bingana 90% babeshwaho n’uburimyi. Abangana n’ibice 70% na bo, usanga baronka agahembo kari munsi y’idorari rimwe ry’Abanyamerika ku musi.

Inyuma y’ihagarikwa ry'idemokarasi mu 1993, ibihugu bigize kano karere (Ubuganda, Tanzaniya, Ubufirika bw’epfo), bishigikiwe n’amakungu , vyarafashe ingingo yo kugarukana amahoro mu gihugu , ibiganiro vyatumye haba ishirwa ry’igikumu i Arusha ku masezerano y’amahoro n’umwumvikano mu Uburundi. Amasezerano y’i Arusha ashimikiye ku mwumvikano n’ubumwe mu gihugu, agategekanya n’ingene abadasangiye ubwoko boserukirwa ata mahinyu. Ishirwa mu ngiro ry’Amasezerano ryabaye intango y’intwaro y’infatakibanza, mu ntambwe yashitseko iyihambaye ikaba yabaye ishikirizwa muri Gitugutu umwaka w'2001, ry’ibwirizwa shingiro rizogenga itunganywa ry’inzego mu kiringo c’amezi 36.

Muri Ruhuhuma umwaka w'2005, Abarundi barahamagariwe kwemeza irindi bwirizwa shingiro biciye mu matora. Iryo bwirizwa shingiro risubirira iryamaze amezi 36, rirasigura neza ko Uburundi ari irepuburika yigenga, ifise n'idemokarasi kandi itisunga idini na rimwe , " yubahiriza ubudasa bw’amoko n’amadini ". Iryo bwirizwa shingiro rirubahiriza urugero amoko aserukirwa mu vy'iporitike, mu nzego, mu buzi bw'ireta, rikongera rikubahiriza intwaro ihuriyemwo abanyeporitike n’abajejwe umutekano mu gushinga urugero ahahutu n’abatutsi baserukirwako, badasize inyuma kwubahiriza uguserukirwa kw’abakenyezi ku bice 30%.

Ubutunzi[edit | edit source]

Uburundi ni igihugu gitunzwe canecane n´uburimyi hamwe n´ubworozi. Ibice 90% vy´abarundi ni co bakora. Kuva mu 1993 aho indwano itereye bifatanijwe n´ibihano bwafatiwe mu 1996 n´ibihugu bibanyi vyo kwugara imbibe; ubukene bwariyongereye cane. Ubu Uburundi buriko buranaganaga kuva aho hasinyiwe amasezerano hagati y'imigwi yahora irwanya ubutegetsi hamwe n'igisoda c'Ireta. Abahinga babona ko Uburundi bufise kazoza keza.

Indero[edit | edit source]

Amashure matoya : Mu Burundi abana batangura amashure matoya bafise imyaka itandatu. Amashure matoya atunganijwe mu myaka itandatu. Umwaka wa gatandatu uherezwa n'ikibazo c'Ireta giha abarushije abandi uburenganzira bwo kwiga mu mashure yisumbuye akukira Ireta. Abamenye mugabo bataronse ubwo burenganzira, baca biga amshure yisumbuye akukira amakomine. Abo kinaniye barashobora guhitira canke bagaheba kwiga, bakaja kurondera ubuzima mu myuga mitomito. Abenshi muri abo birabagora cane kwiteza imbere kuko baba bavuye mw'ishure bakiri bato kandi ata bumenyi bukwiye bafise.

Amashure y'isumbuye Mu Burundi abana batangura amashure yisumbuye bafise imyaka icumi n'ibiri canke icumi n'itatu iyo batahitiye. Mu bisanzwe amashure yisumbuye agizwe n'ibice bibiri. Mu gice ca mbere abana bamara imyaka ine ku ntebe y'ishure.Ivyirwa bikuru bikuru bakurikira ni ibi: 1. Indimi(ikirundi, igifaransa n'icongereza): 2. Ibiharuro 3. Akahise 4. Indonda bihugu 5. Uburimyi 6. Kunonora imitsi 7. Ubuhinga

Kugira babandanye igice ca kabiri, bategerezwa kumenya ikibazo co mu mwaka w'icumi. Abafise ubumenyi bujanye n'ibiharuro, barashobora guhitamwo kubandanya amashure yisumbuye mu gisata c'ibiharuro n'ibindi vyirwa bijanye. Abafise amanota meza mu ndimi n'ibindi vyirwa bijanye na bo bashobora ku bandanya amashure yisumbuye mu gisata c'indimi. Muri ico gihe, ivyirwa abana biga biba bishimikiye ku ndimi canke ku biharuro. Bitayeko, abana barashobora guhitamwo kwiga amashure y'imyuga. Abana bahisemwo kunonosora ibiharuro canke indimi, bategerezwa gukora ikibazo co mu mwaka w'icumi na gatatu. Ni ikibazo c'Ireta gihambaye cane gitanga uburenganzira bwo kwinjira muri kaminuza.

Amashure kaminuza Reference: http://www.university-directory.eu/Burundi/Burundi-Universities.html